Accordingly, we might speak of both Marcus Aurelius and Hemingway as part of the Stoic school, even though the two lived two thousand years apart from each other on different continents, and one was a meditative roman Emperor who outlawed gladiatorial combat and the other. Keep in mind, divisions into such artificial schools of thought are often arbitrary, contradictory, and murky. They work best at pointing out general similarities rather than creating sharp, clear categorical labels. Schwa : The mid-central vowel or the phonetic symbol for. This phonetic symbol is typically an upside down. The schwa vowel appears in words like p u tt and sof a and d.
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The purpose of scenery is either to suggest vaguely a specific setting or produce the illusion of actually watching events in that specific setting. Schism : A schism is a split or division in the church concerning religious belief or organizational structure-one in which a single church splits into two or more separate denominations-often hostile to each other. Scholasticism : In medieval universities, scholasticism was the philosophy in which all branches of educaton were developed and ordered by theological principles or schemata. School : While common parlance uses the word school to refer to a specific institute of learning, literary scholars use this term to refer to groups of writers or poets who share similar styles, literary techniques, or social concerns regardless of their educational backgrounds. In some rare cases, the group's members recognize that they share these concerns while they are alive, and they purposely name themselves or their movement to reflect their characteristics. For instance, the American beat poets, the French Imagists, and the English Pre-raphaelites recognized and named themselves as being sas part of their respective movements. It is far more common, however, for later generations of scholars and critics to look back and lump groups of artists or thinkers into specific schools. For instance, the romantic poets, the Spenserians, the pushkin Pleiad, the cavalier poets, the metaphysical poets, and the gothic novelists are specific schools of literature, but these labels did not appear for the particular groups until years after the writers lived. Art historians make similar distinctions about the bauhaus school, the Expressionist movement, the fauves, the cubists, and. Shared intellectual or philosophical tendencies mark schools of philosophy as well-such as the Epicureans, the Stoics, the skeptics, the sophists, the Platonists, and the neo-platonists-and these terms are often applied in a general way to writers who existed in later centuries.
This general term contrasts with the more specific schema atticum, above. Scene : A dramatic sequence taking place within a single locale (or setting ) on stage. Often scenes serve as the subdivision of an act within a play. Note that when we use the word scene how generically or in the text of a paper (for example, "there are three scenes in the play we do not capitalize the word. See the mla handbook, 7th edition, section.6.5 and.4.8 for further information involving citations of scenes in English papers. Sceop (a-s, "shaper also spelled scop an Anglo-saxon singer or musician who would perform in a mead hall. Scenery : The visual environment created onstage using a backdrop and props.
The device leads to some interesting translation decisions in modern English editions of the bible or Greek literature. Should the translator "normalize" the grammar so it doesn't look odd to English students? Or should the translator bravely insert his own English grammatical "error" sume to match the intentional "error" in the original Greek text? See schema pindarikon, below. Schema pindarikon : This popular grammatical construction appears in the ancient Attic Greek of Pindar and later in New Testament Greek. It is a general type of enallage in which any compound subject takes a singular verb (Smith 9). Normally, that would be considered a grammatical error, but if the poet Pindar does it, it is high art.
In some cultures and time periods, scatology is treated as vulgar or low-brow (for instance, the victorian period in England). At other times, scatological elements appear in stories that are not necessarily meant to be low-brow. For instance, many serious medieval legends of demons link them to excrement, and the audience of French fabliaux appear to be noblemen and aristocrats rather than bourgeois rabble. Scatology also appears in medieval plays such as Mankind and in works associated various French fabliaux (singular fabliau ). Chaucer relies heavily on scatological humor in "The summoner's Tale." see fabliau. Schema atticum : This popular grammatical construction appears in ancient Attic Greek (and it is later mimicked in New Testament Greek). It is a specific type of enallage in which a neuter plural subject takes a singular verb (Smith 9). Normally, this construction would be considered a grammatical error in Greek, but if poets, playwrights, or prophets do it intentionally, it becomes high art.
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In contrast, juvenalian satire also uses withering invective, support insults, and a slashing attack. The name comes from the roman poet juvenal (60-140 ce who frequently employed the device, but the label is applied to British writers such as thesis Swift and Pope as well. Compare with medieval estates satire and spoof. Satiric comedy : Any drama or comic poem involving humor as a means of satire. Satyr play : A burlesque play submitted by Athenian playwrights along with their tragic trilogies. On each day of the dionysia, one tragedy was performed, followed by one satyr play. The term should not be confused with satire.
Scansion : The act of "scanning" a poem to determine its meter. To perform scansion, the student breaks down each line into individual metrical feet and determines which syllables have heavy stress and which have lighter stress. According to the early conventions of English poetry, each foot should have at least one stressed syllable, though feet with all unstressed syllables are found occasionally in Greek and other poetic traditions. Scatology : Not to be confused with eschatology, scatology refers to so-called "potty-humor"-jokes or stories dealing with feces designed to elicit either laughter or disgust. Anthropologists have noted that scatological humor occurs in nearly every human culture.
These languages are generally associated with Middle-eastern and eastern European Indo-european languages and they often have an unvoiced alveopalal sound rather than the palatal /k/ found in equivalent centum words. Click here for more information. Satire : An attack on or criticism of any stupidity or vice in the form of scathing humor, or a critique of what the author sees as dangerous religious, political, moral, or social standards. Satire became an especially popular technique used during the Enlightenment, in which it was believed that an artist could correct folly by using art as a mirror to reflect society. When people viewed the satire and saw their faults magnified in a distorted reflection, they could see how ridiculous their behavior was and then correct that tendency in themselves. The tradition of satire continues today.
Popular cartoons such as The simpsons and televised comedies like the daily Show make use of it in modern media. Conventionally, formal satire involves a direct, first-person-address, either to the audience or to a listener mentioned within the work. An example of formal satire is Alexander Pope's Moral Essays. Indirect satire conventionally employs the form of a fictional narrative-such as Byron's Don juan or Swift's Gulliver's Travels. Ridicule, irony, exaggeration, and similar tools are almost always used in satire. Horatian satire tends to focus lightly on laughter and ridicule, but it maintains a playful tone. Generally, the tone is sympathetic and good humored, somewhat tolerant of imperfection and folly even while expressing amusement. The name comes from the roman poet Horace (65 bce-8 ce who preferred to ridicule human folly in general rather than condemn specific persons.
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Sapphic ode : Virtually identical with a horatian ode, a sapphic ode consists of quatrains in which the first three lines consist of eleven syllables and the fourth line contains five. The metrical pattern how is described under Sapphic meter. Sapphics : Verses written in Sapphic meter. Sapphic verse : Verse written in Sapphic meter. Sarcasm : Another improve term for verbal irony -the act of ostensibly saying one thing but meaning another. See further discussion under irony. Satem language (from Satem, avestan for "one hundred Pronounced, "shah-tem the term refers to one of the two main branches of Indo-european languages.
The differences between Salic and English Law regarding inheritance play a key part in Shakespeare's Henry v, in which King Henry must determine whether he can justly claim the throne of France. Samoyedic : A non-Indo-european branch of Uralic languages spoken in northern Siberia. Sapphic meter :Typically, this meter is found in quatrains in which the first three lines consist of eleven syllables and the fourth line contains five. The metrical pattern is as follows in the first three lines: (foot #1) / u (foot #2) / x (foot #3) / u u (foot #4) / u (and foot #5) /. The " x " in each case indicates a syllaba anceps -a syllable that may be either heavily or lightly stressed. In the last line, the pattern is (foot #1) / u u and (foot #2) / /. The pattern is notoriously difficult in English, but hamlet more common in Greek. The term Sapphic comes from the name of the female Greek poet Sappho.
inherit the French throne passes only patrilineally rather than matrilineally. In England, however, the English queen Consort (a queen married to a ruling husband) can become the queen Regnant (a queen ruling in her own right) if her husband dies and there are no other male relatives in line to inherit the throne. Likewise, in French Salic Law, if the queen remarries after the king dies, any children she has from the new husband cannot claim the throne. Likewise, if a male king dies without heirs, only his brothers and their male offspring can claim the throne. This right does not pass to male children of the queen that she might have later. However, under English law, a male descended from the English queen can ascend to the throne.
Thereafter, scribes wrote them down. The Icelandic sagas take place when Iceland was first settled by vikings (930-1030 AD). Examples include Grettir's Saga, njál's Saga, egil's Saga, and the international saga of Eric the red. The saga is marked by literary and social conventions including warriors who stop in the midst of combat to recite extemporaneous poetry, individuals wearing dark blue cloaks when they are about to kill someone, elaborate genealogies and "back-story" before the main plot, casual violence, and. Later sagas show signs of being influenced by continental literature-particularly French tales of chivalry and knighthood. For modern readers, the appearance of these traits often seems to sit uneasily with the surrounding material. In common usage, the term saga has been erroneously applied to any exciting, long narrative.
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Literary terms and Definitions: s, this page is under perpetual construction! It was last updated April 24, 2018. This list is meant to assist, not intimidate. Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. D e, f g, h i, j k, l m, n o,. R s, t u, v w x y z saga : The word comes from the Old Norse term for a "saw" or a "saying." essay Sagas are Scandinavian and Icelandic prose narratives about famous historical heroes, notable families, or the exploits of kings and warriors. Until the 12th century, most sagas were folklore, and they passed from person to person by oral transmission.